Sunday, November 23, 2014

La Vie en France: French Citizenship and Immigration

We  recently had a class where we discussed about acquiring French citizenship and the hurdles involved in migrating to France for non-citizens. Europe is a dream come true for many people from countries plagued by poverty, unemployment and political instability. However, there is a challenge to moving to greener pastures. Integrating oneself to the new environment and culture and having your way of life accepted by the other culture has proven difficult.

Definition of a French citizen

There are different versions of what people define being 'French' to mean. To some being a French monsieur, madame or mademoiselle you should be of Caucasian descent while to others being French means to be born in the country or living in France for several years and acknowledging the language and culture of the state regardless of race. This has resulted in racial discrimination towards some immigrants and even citizens of France who are not of Caucasian descent.

French Citizenship

Upsurge of different cultures

Immigration to France increased significantly between the periods of 1945 to 1974. Most immigrants are from Africa, other European countries and Asia. Most African immigrants came from Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Mali, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire. This influx of immigrants saw an introduction of several cultures into France in terms of language, religion and even cuisine.

Today there exist restaurants in France that serve Cameroonian cuisine or Chinese food. There is also the presence of other religions like Judaism and Islam. This has changed the face of France and it is now seen to be a multi-cultural country.

African Restaurant in France and the Grand Mosque in Paris

Life of Immigrants in France

There are pros and cons experienced by immigrants on moving to France. France provides better opportunities for employment compared to the home countries of immigrants. There is also security due to political stability and higher standards of living. High quality educational facilities are also more accessible.

The negative experiences might include difficulty in attaining citizenship documents even after meeting the requirements for application. The novel Un amour sans papiers by Nathalie Etoke, an author and professor of French in an American university, looks into the world of immigrants living in France. We were honored to have a Skype chat with Nathalie during one of our classes where she touched on issues regarding French citizenship and her experiences while she lived in France.                                                   
Immigrants may also face racial or religious discrimination while trying to settle in France.

The Future of immigrants in France

It is my hope that France will grow to integrate a variety of cultures and to become a state that appreciates cultural diversity. Also appropriate measures should be taken by the French government to protect immigrants and their descendants from any form of discrimination.

Cultural Diversity


Saturday, November 22, 2014

A fashion feast - with Pat Mbela

Last week I had hoped we would watch Indochine because I wanted the class to see a classic movie with the iconic Catherine Deneuve. Unfortunately the shop where I borrow DVDs and where I was sure I would get the movie didn't have it, so I settled for us watching Coco before Chanel with Audrey Tautou.

Which was just as well, because it provided a good background to today's discussion on the French fashion industry. I had sent the students the first chapter of Noel Palomo-Levinski's book The World's Most Influential Fashion Designers, which captures the history of early 20th Century European designers like Paul Poiret and Coco Chanel. The book does a good job of tracing the evolution of fashion from the days of couturiers for the nobility to the pret-a-porter (ready-to-wear) industry of today, as well as how early designers inspired the latter day ones.

For me, the two most important things to note were the impact of the revolution on the fashion industry, in that even fashion got democratized (if only slightly) and no longer the preserve of the aristocracy, and that synergy between fashion designers like Poiret and Yves Saint Laurent and painters like Picasso and Matisse. Third was the role of Paris as a city of the arts in inspiring creativity.

What is the situation in Kenya?

I was privileged to get connected to Pat Mbela of the Poisa Fashion label. We have been friends on facebook and I love her work, especially because she uses bold colors and East African-rooted bead jewelry. The plan was to look at her work before making the call to discuss her thoughts on the fashion industry. But time wasnt enough.

But the discussion was still fun. Pat took us through the history of the industry from the 80s when a handful of designers would showcase their work at Serena as people were having lunch, to now where there are fashion markets and more opportunities to show case work like at the Swahili fashion week and FAFA. What was so impressive is Pat's professionalism, her determination to hold Kenyan fashion design at international standards. She also talked of Joy Mboya's role in gathering artists of different genres at the Go-Down together, and her experience doing the Kenya Airways cabin crew uniform and showcasing her work in different cities of the world. While we celebrated the milestones in Kenyan fashion, we also talked of the limited support that Kenyan fashion design gets from government in terms of an enabling environment and from the Kenyan public who still don't understand the difference between professional design and tailoring. Many Kenyans also prefer mitumba and don't consider African designs like kitenge suitable for the office wear.

After the conversation with Pat, I told the class that if there's anything they should get out of the discussion, it's that well done clothes are worth their investment. One of our guests, Sheila Obilo, is now dressmaking, which was great because we now discussed the intricacies of well-finished clothes like good cuts, darts, lining and invisible hems, which are often missing from locally made clothes because customers don't want to pay for good finish and fitting.

(left to right: Maya, Bonaventure, Nina and Sheila)
If there's something that the French have done well, it is to elevate their cultural expressions such as clothes and food (next week we sample French cuisine, or gastronomy) into art, and the world has embraced it as well. As Maya says, we Kenyans also need to experiment more, especially in food and clothes. And Pat Mbela is one Kenyan who does that. And beautifully too.

Friday, November 21, 2014

A Salad Adventure

by Chris Lyimo

Saladu Awooka àk Mango
(Avocado–Mango Salad)
I was invited to attend a class on Francophone World at Daystar and if I chose to, I could come along with a salad from one of the French speaking countries.

Putting together this salad was an unanticipated adventure. I figured that the ingredients were simple and easily available in my Ongata Rongai neighbourhood market and that there was nothing particularly Senegalese about them.

With that I left it to the morning of the class to look for the ingredients. There was enough time to put together the salad given that I was not doing any cooking. Oversight no. 1

You know what they say when you ass-u-me. That was me at the market on the day. And I should have taken a photograph of the salad with me. Oversight No. 2

First stop was Tuskys Supermarket to look for the non-perishable ingredients. I had never heard of either peanut oil or canola oil, and though I often pride myself regarding my culinary skills and love for cooking, on this day, that pride was severely tested. It turned out that several of the supermarket staff had also not heard of the same oils. I walked down the food aisle looking for peanut and/or canola oil. I gave up and settled for regular salad oil. Cholesterol free as an added bonus. I was also going to use regular salt because I didn’t know what kosher salt was either. With the shredded coconut in the cart, I was good to go.

To the market

Though I recalled what, say, jalapeño looked like in the photo I was sent with the brief, I neither knew how to describe what jalapeño looked like or its correct pronunciation. And what was/is a navel orange anyway? I quickly consoled myself that this wasn’t an exam. The sigh of relief was deeper when I conveniently remembered I wasn’t even a student of the class or even Daystar. This was a fun thing to do. I could even chalk it up in my Do a New Thing Every Month activity for September.

I’ve always thought parsley and dhania was the same thing. I couldn’t believe I was now making calls to consult of these ingredients like my life depended on it (perhaps it did in one dimension but that’s a story for another day)

Nobody knew what jalapeno was but when I described it and what I intended to do to the grocer, she suggested I go with a yellow sweet pepper. The regular green peppers are good for a vegetable salad and not a fruit salad. I know lime juice, in a bottle. This adventure was bringing new surprises at every turn because I’m embarrassed to admit that this was the first time I saw what limes actually looked like. I got the oranges, and I dared not embarrass myself further by asking for navel ones. Avocados were in plenty but the mangoes, being out of season, were the most expensive I have ever bought.

I was now getting worried about the serve chilled part. I was quickly running out of time to prepare the salad and effectively chill it.


I followed the instructions pretty much as prescribed. I diced the avocadoes in ¼” chunks rather than the 1” as suggested. I should have stuck to this suggested to avoid them getting soggy. I had over an hour to chill the salad so I put it in the freezer rather than in the lower refrigerator. I need to leave in order to get to class in good time.


In spite of the Friday afternoon traffic, I was confident that I would arrive on time. I was doing quite well up to two or so kilometres from Daystar when the matatu made an about turn due to the heavy Friday afternoon traffic. The main snag was then the conductor sat at the front with the driver and there was no way i could get access to him and they were now heading to town via Industrial Area.

A huge inconvenience to my well laid plans. I alighted and tried to figure out the most efficient route I could use. I got a boda boda motorcycle taxi and got there feeling sweaty, hungry. Fortunately the class time had been pushed forward a few minutes and I was on time. Sweaty, frazzled but on time.

Sharing the Meal
Serving the meal

It was nice to hear the various descriptions of how the others prepared the recipes assigned to them. One student shared that he didn’t get  the couscous  but the adventure of looking for it in several stores and supermarkets counted for something in the adventure .

The sampling of the various foods presented made for the best the class experience I have ever had.

It was good to know that francophone Africa has such a rich food heritage aside from the reputation of their football teams always beating our national football team, Harambee Stars.

The Pen Patat

by Ndanu Mbunga

Cutting the pie
The Pen patat is a rich dessert from Haiti. My friend Dr. Wandia asked me to make it for her class and I was both stressed and delighted. Stressed because it was actually sweet potato pie which was a whole new concept to me and delighted because the thrill of the possibility of actually making it well was so cool.

Wandia sent me the recipe and I remember taking leave just so I could bake it and attend the class too. The hardest part of making the Pen patat was grating the sweet potatoes. Grating raw sweet potatoes is tiring and quite messy too. The peeled sweet potatoes begin to turn color and I could not help like feel I was doing something wrong. I finished the grating and followed the recipe to the letter after which I put the mixture in the oven. It took nearly 2 hours to dry in the oven and I was going to bed at nearly 3am.

Everything paid off during the class when I saw everyone enjoying the pie. It turned out great and with a few tweaks, it is something I could gladly make again especially for my parents. It is a new way to prepare the sweet potatoes they love so much

I was amazed at how much work and detail Haitians put into preparing their food. They definitely take their food and culture seriously. It was an honour to be part of them in this small way! Here goes the recipe. The foodies and kitchen lovers can definitely try it out....

Monday, November 10, 2014


During one of the classes we had this semester, I was assigned to present on Haitian fashion. I was excited to have this topic to present on since I am an avid reader of any fashion related material. At first, I was really clueless as I had never known about or heard of any popular fashion trends, designers or models related to least that is what I thought. However, what I discovered about Haitian fashion was really amazing.

The Karabella dress and Guayabera were the results I got from researching on traditional Haitian wear. The Karabella dress is a beautiful pompous dress with layers of ruffles at the skirt section of the dress and it is worn with a head piece that resembles the Gele often worn by West African women. The dress is worn by Haitian women at festivals especially during the Quadrille dance. On the other hand, men wear the Guayabera, a white shirt, which is also worn by men in other Caribbean states.

Karabella dress and Guayabera shirt

Carnaval De Fleurs, a festival celebrated by Haitians that seeks to highlight Haiti's flora, really caught my eye during my research. The festival which is celebrated annually is full of energy and color! Residents dress up in flower-like costumes and put on complementing accessories to brighten their outfits. The women also apply heavy glam make-up by putting on popping eye shadow colors and shouting lipstick hues. The festival was also established to boost Haiti's tourism.

Carnaval De Fleurs

Stella Jean is one of the notable fashion designers from Haiti whose work I fell in love with. She uses traditional fabrics with rich patterns and with the help of Italian high-fashion technology, she creates clothes with a contemporary design. Stella, a Haitian-Italian, uses her brand to develop Haiti by creating sustainable jobs for Haitian artisans and craftsmen.

Stella Jean

Stella Jean designs

  Another notable fashion designer of Haitian descent is Hassan Pierre. His garments are constructed with organic, eco-friendly fabrics, natural dyes and recycled zippers. His work has even been featured in world class magazines like Vogue and Marie Claire.

Hassan Pierre

Hassan Pierre's designs


I love seeing African models feature in catwalks or in high-end fashion magazines. That's why I just had to write something on the beautiful Jany Remponeau Tomba (above) in this post. She was a model in the 1960s and 1970s. She is a Haitian who moved to America as an immigrant and was discovered by a fashion magazine editor. She has appeared on magazines like American Girl, Woman's Day, Mademoiselle and Essence.
Former fashion model and actress, Gracelle Beauvais (below) is also of Haitian descent. I have seen her in a few of Hollywood movies but I previously had no idea of her origin. She has also appeared in Essence magazine and modeled for well-known cosmetic companies like Avon, Mary Kay and Clariol.

Haiti also has a fashion magazine called Amour Creole that also offers readers the latest in movies and music along with expert relationship on relationships, family, careers and so much more.

 Like many other countries, Haiti also hold an annual fashion week which they call Ayiti Fashion Week (A.F.W) that brings together major players in the Haitian fashion industry and promotes Haitian designs and culture.


Tuesday, November 4, 2014


Background Knowledge

Haitian cuisine originates from several culinary styles. It is influenced by Hispaniola, French, African, Spanish and Middle Eastern cuisine. Spices and Herbs are widely used along with peppers for flavoring food. The type of food eaten varies according to the time of day and also the type of event being celebrated.

Popular Haitian Dishes

Mayi Moulen

It is a corn meal porridge cooked with garlic, pepper, butter or margarine.

Mayi Moulen


Bouillon is a hearty stew consisting of a variety of spices, potatoes, tomatoes and either goat meat or beef. Maggi Bouillon cubes are used to add and enhance the flavor of this stew.

Puole en Sauce

This is a Haitian stewed chicken dish that is often served with rice.

Bouillon and Poule en Sauce


Legim is a thick vegetable stew that consists of eggplant, cabbage, chayote, spinach and watercress. It is also flavored with epis*, onions, garlic and tomato paste.

*epis is a base for most Haitian dishes. It is a sauce made from cooked peppers, garlic and herbs.


This is a spicy Haitian slaw or salad. It consitis of shredded cabbage, sliced peppers and grated
carrots. The vegetables are marinated in vinegar for about five days to enhance the flavor.

Legim and Pikliz



This is a sweet frozen dessert made with fruit syrup usually sold on the streets of Haiti by vendors. It tends to attract bees because of the fruit syrup hence it's not a surprising sight to see a vendor surrounded by bees.

Pen Patat

This is a soft and sweet bread made using cinnamon, evaporated milk and sweet potato. It is often served cold.

Fresco and Pen Patat

 Popular Haitian Beverages

Alcoholic Beverages

Rhum Barbancourt

Rhum Barbancourt is a rum brand and a popular export of Haiti. It is also enjoyed by the locals.


It is also known as 'Kremas' in Ayisien. Cremas is made from creamed coconut, evaporated or sweet condensed milk and rum. Spices, vanilla extract and raisins are also added. It is served at special events and holidays or consumed along with a sweet pastry.


It is often served at festivals and parties. The most popular beer in Haiti is Prestige.

Rhum Barbancourt, Cremas and Prestige beer

Non-Alcoholic Beverages

Tropical Juices

Fruit juices like guava, grapefruit, mango, orange and passion are widely enjoyed in Haiti.

Cola Courrone

This is a fruit champagne carbonated drink.


Haitians enjoy drinking coffee. The most popular coffee brands are Rebo and Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee.

Tropical juices, Cola Courrone and Rebo and Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee

Additional Haitian Dishes and Beverages


This is a stew consisting of hominy (dried maize kernels), beans, pumpkin and meat often pork. An interesting fact is that Tchaka is used as an offering to the Iwa spirits of Haitian Vodou.


This is fried pork.


This is a thick corn milkshake made using evaporated milk, sugar and corn flour.

Tchaka, Griyo and Akasan

 We got the opportunity to enjoy Haitian food in class which you can view here.

Poulet Dg

For the week 7 topic, Negritude and the arts each of us was given a country. Mine was Cameroon. AS you'll note from my other post I was to present on Cameroon and also, COOK a traditional dish. We created  a whats up group  and agreed on me cooking the Poulet Dg. The name is quite interesting for the Dg is an acronym for "Directeur Général" (Director general). It is also known to be a special meal  that was only prepared for important people but is these days enjoyed by all. 

 Thank God for the site I found that not  only had the recipe but also provided visual aid that helped me know I was doing every step correctly. In the ingredients Plantains were one of the main components and truth be told I have always thought that they were just ripe bananas like the 'matoke but ripe matoke'. :)

Well it turns out that is not the case. You can not buy the 'matoke' and give it some days to turn into plantains. They are to different things . In actual truth the plantains are not as easy to find at the market. The cooking process was nerve wrecking. The fact that I have attempted to cook chicken before and been told it as 'okay' didn't help make thing easier. To know that more than two people are expecting your food to appear a particular way  (since there was a photo I  posted) or also that there was no time for trial and error having prepared the meal the morning that the class was to take place. 

My own mother had suggested that I maybe make a complementary dish just in case I failed on this one. Many are thinking what was the final verdict well, I succeeded!!

The photo I posted
My Poulet Dg


Cameroon is one of those rare countries that was colonized by more than one colonial ruler namely the Germans, British and the French.

The dark orange represents the German Kamerun, The dark red the British Cameroons, the dark blue the French Cameroun and the dark green the Republic of Cameroon. 

French Cameroun gained independence first on the 1st of January in 1960 as the La Republique du Cameroun. The northern two thirds of the British cameroons who were mainly Muslims opted to join Nigeria while the southern Cameroons voted to join with the republic of Cameroon thus becoming the Federal Republic of Cameroon. 

Its first chosen president was Ahmadou Ahidjo in 1961. He was in power for 21 years and in !982 he willingly stepped down for his successor Paul Biya. As one can imagine for those 21 years many were loyal to him and as such he was believed to have been behind the 1984 attempted coup which led to the death of approximately 71-1,000 people. As a result Ahmadou was exiled to France and later died in Senegal. 

Paul Biya is the second president of Cameroon. His been in power since 1982. For the past 32 years they've been elections that he has won. His wife Chantal Biya is famously known for Her hairstyles.

His wife Chantal Biya and is famously known for her hairstyles which during the recent African summit in the America an article about it was published in the Washington post.

Cameroon fashion has been noticed across the globe with the embassy of Cameroon being present during the African Fashion Week an event which was organized by a Cameroonian designer Miss Diana Tambe. The designer that intrigued me the most from Cameroon was Patou Manga. He showcased his work in Amsterdam during the African Fashion Week. The United Fashion for Peace referred to his work as Dandy Urban style. His style is popularly known as the Patou style.

Monday, November 3, 2014

'La Ville-Lumiere'-The City of Lights.



The initial thoughts that come into my mind when I visualized Paris were romance, medieval architecture and baguettes in Parisians' bags as they walked about the city streets. However, during this past Friday's French lesson I discovered there is more to Paris than what we see in Hollywood movies. The city is the capital city of France and was nicknamed 'City of Lights' as a result of the Age of Enlightenment. This nickname took a literal sense in the 1980s when French statesman, Napoleon the third had the boulevard and streets of Paris illuminated by fifty six thousand gas lamps.

George-Eugene Haussmann's Renovation of Paris

Haussmann was a state's representative of the Seine region (where Paris is located) and he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to renovate Paris. He achieved this by demolishing congested neighborhoods and building wide avenues, parks and boulevards to connect various areas in the city. Before this renovation, Paris was a filthy city with slums scattered all over the place and narrow roads that horse-carts could barely pass through. The city was also divided into administrative districts, 'arrondissements' in French. Haussmann's project saw a change in the face and structure of the city which we now admire.

George-Eugene Haussmann 


Renovation of Paris


 Famous Places in Paris

Eiffel tower

The Eiffel tower is a symbol used internationally when referring to the French nation. The lattice iron tower was completed in 1889 to commemorate the 100 year anniversary of the French revolution.

Eiffel Tower



Notre Dame de Paris

A historic Catholic cathedral built using a gothic style of architecture, Notre Dame de Paris is one of Paris' greatest tourist attractions. The building features stained glass windows, gigantic bells and gargoyle statues. The cathedral reminds me of the 1996 Disney animation, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, which was inspired by a fictional novel authored by French writer, Victor Hugo.

Notre Dame de Paris

Cafes in Paris

Cafes or coffee houses in Paris are very popular among the French people. Cafes are currently a place where hot beverages and meals are served, usually located on a street beside a road. Pastries like croissants, tartes, crepes and crème brulee are served in Parisian cafes. However, previously cafes were more than just a place to order a cup of coffee and watch traffic by the roadside while reading the daily L'Humanite. They were previously meeting points for intellectuals to discuss, share and exchange ideas.

Parisian café


  Louvre Museum

The Louvre is a world famous museum with a collection of popular antiques, sculptures and art work.

Louvre Museum and Pyramid

 Champs Elyseé

It is a boulevard in the 8th arrondissement where the Elysee palace (official residence of the French president) is located. It is also home to the monument, Arc de Triomphe.

From left: Elysee Palace and Arc de Triomphe

Métro de Paris

The Paris Metro is a subway system in the Paris metropolitan area. It facilitates the transportation of millions of French citizens and tourists daily.

Paris Metro

Quartier Latin

Also known as the Latin Quarter of Paris, it's an area known for its bustling student life, lively atmosphere and bistros. Several universities are found here for example, L'Universite de Paris or Sorbonne.

Quartier Latin


It is an area located on a hill where many popular artists like Pablo Picasso, Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir are believed to have worked. The beautiful Basilica of Sacre-Couer is also found here.

From left: Basilica of Sacre-Coeur and Place du Tetre in Montrmatre

Other places of interest 


This is a multi-racial neighborhood in Paris situated on a hill. The name Belleville means 'beautiful town' in French. Belleville offers a view to a completely different side of Paris that is portrayed by media. The town has a majority of Asian and African residents. The streets and subway stations are decorated with graffiti art and several Chinese restaurants are located here.

Graffiti art on the streets of Belleville

Museé Dapper

This is a center located in Paris that hosts numerous exhibitions of African art. It was established to bring into view African culture through art pieces, sculptures and story telling sessions.

From left: Musee Dapper entrance and African art exhibition


The study of the City of Lights was definitely eye-opening. The Parisian parks, museums, cafes and cathedrals are definitely irresistible to the ordinary tourist and enjoyed by the Parisian residents daily. It is a city illuminated by rich history and culture and of course world-class cuisine. A visit to Paris just landed itself on my bucket list!

Sunday, November 2, 2014


   Haiti is the 3rd largest country in the Caribbean.Her population is estimated to be 9.8 million.The Haiti combines wide range of influences.This is of the people who settled on the Caribbean island.It reflects the French, English, Spanish and widely of African rhythm.The instruments used in Haitian music was brought over by foreign countries more especially Africa.Therefore music is a vital in the Haitian  culture.

  The zouk originated from the caribbean island of Guadloupe and Martinique.The zouk music was much popularized by the FrenchAntilles Kassau in 1980.Zouk have a fast tempo jump.In the present, Zouk is characterized by a slow and soft rhythm.CLICK TO WATCH A VIDEO HERE.
           ROCK KREYOL
Originated as rock and roll in the 1960.
It was widely performed by the  Eye band
( in Nigeria)
Today Haitian rock is alternative rock music with the blend of Caribbean flavor.CLICK TO WATCH A VIDEO
  Born in the 19th century.Also known as compas direct.Popularized by sax and guitar player(Jean-Baptiste)It’s the main music of countries such as Dominica and French Antilles.CLICK HERE TO WATCH A VIDEO

   Haitian Hip hop is more popular with the Haitian youth.Often  the music communicates a social, political s well as materialism. The musical beats are frequently with urban sounds.Lately the music has risen to be popular.CLICK TO WATCH A VIDEO

          MINI JAZZ
  Originally formed in mid 60s. 
  It is  characterized by rock band formula of two guitars.One bass , drum-conga-cowbul, alto sax and full horn.Other use keyboard, accordion or lead guitar.
  However,  small jazz/band had their guitar with sophisticated styles.Tabou Combo is known to be the most popular ensemble of Haiti on the Mini- Jazz music.WATCH VIDEO

  Originated from Trinidad in the 20th century.It’s rhythm is traced back to West Africa. It’s characterized by highly rhythmic and harmonic vocal often sung by French creoles.The music allows creative defiance in the face of oppression in all forms.CLICK TO WATCH THE VIDEO



    As legacy of the French rule.Senegalese start their day with bread mainly in Dakar where there are croissant and pastries for breakfast.Main meals consist of rice dishes , couscous and millet.These form the basis of many dishes Proteins usually provided by meat, peanuts or fish.Senegalese favorite meal is THIEBOUDIENNE the This is chunks of fish stuffed with herbs, served on bed of rice and les vegetables . Another popular meal is   YASSA POULET,grilled chicken marinated in an onion and lemon soup. Consequently, there are Common drinks which  is the BISSAP.
It’s made from hibiscus ,sugar and water.Ginger juice ( gingembre in french) is popular.
     Having pride in one’s appearance is very important to the Senegalese.Even the poorest people try to be well dressed.Men and women wear beautifully-designed long flowing robes-BOUBOU.Equally important, women dress in colorful and elegant garments. Even when they are carrying out daily chores.Markets are usually full of stalls selling beautiful fabrics Tailors turns these fabrics into the most remarkable Boubou.
     YOUSSOU D’NOUR is described as the father of music and the most singer alive in Senegal. He developed a style of popular music known in the serer language   MBALAX. YOUSSOUD’NOUR MUSIC
       Islam is the religion of the vast majority of the population.
It is practised through involvement in groups known as muslimbrotherhood -Qadiri,Tijani and Mouridis.Spiritual leader are called MARABOUTS Senegal mostsacred city-Tabou, is the birth place of AMADOU BAMBA M’BACKE who was the founder MOURIDIS brothers.
Christianity is also practised but with a small population.
They are the Roman Catholics and Protestants. View photo of christians praying in Senegal